Vladimir Putin’s letter to European leaders has raised the threat of gas supply disruption in Europe and once again posed the question - how reliant should the EU be on Russian gas imports? However, in European energy security there are 28 different ‘Russia questions’ – one for every member state. As a result a grand European response is unlikely and there are also reasons to doubt Russia’s main energy partners, Germany and Italy, will want to abandon that relationship. However, there are a range of smaller actions linked to greater interconnection, supply diversity and Europe’s antitrust case against Gazprom that should be closely watched. What is less clear is what these actions will add up to and whether this will amount to a significant change in Europe’s energy relationship with Russia.
The views expressed in this note can be attributed to the named author(s) only.